Amazon.ca First Novel Award - $40,000 is given to the best first novel in English published the previous year by a citizen or resident of Canada (http://g-ec2.images-amazon.com/images/G/15/books/fna/FNA_Competition_Rules_2013_V2.pdf).
Arthur Ellis Awards – 7 awards are given for the best Canadian crime and mystery writing published in the previous year (http://www.crimewriterscanada.com/awards/arthur-ellis-awards/about).
Aurora Awards – 8 awards are given out annually for the best Canadian science fiction and fantasy literary works (http://www.prixaurorawards.ca/).
British Columbia National Award for Non-Fiction - $40,000 is awarded to a non-fiction book authored by a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident of Canada (http://www.bcachievement.com/nonfiction/award-guidelines.php)
Burt Award for First Nations, Métis and Inuit Literature - $12,000 goes to the best works of young adult literature published by indigenous writers in Canada (http://canadacouncil.ca/funding/prizes/burt-award-for-first-nations-inuit-and-metis-literature).
Canadian Jewish Literary Awards – 9 awards are given to the year's best works of literature by Jewish Canadian writers or on Jewish cultural and historical topics (http://www.cjlawards.ca/).
Carter V. Cooper Short Fiction Competition - $15,000 in total is awarded to the best story by an emerging writer and the best story by a writer at any career point (http://www.theexilewriters.com/poetry-and-fiction-competitions/).
Cundill History Prize - A prize of US$75,000 is awarded annually to the book that embodies historical scholarship, originality, literary quality and broad appeal (https://www.cundillprize.com/about).
Danuta Gleed Literary Award - $10,000 is given to the best debut short fiction collection by a Canadian author in English language (https://www.writersunion.ca/danuta-gleed-literary-award).
Dayne Ogilvie Prize for LGBTQ Emerging Writers - $4,000 is given to an emerging writer whose body of work demonstrates great potential and who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (http://www.writerstrust.com/Awards/Dayne-Ogilvie-Grant.aspx).
Donner Prize - $50,000 is awarded for the best public policy book by a Canadian (http://www.donnerbookprize.com/).
Doug Wright Award – this prize is awarded annually to the author of the best Canadian work and the most promising talent published in English in the cartooning medium (http://www.dougwrightawards.com/).
Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction - $10,000 is awarded to the best creative nonfiction book with a "Canadian locale and/or significance" that is a Canadian writer's "first or second published book (https://www.wlu.ca/information-for/community-members/literary-awards/edna-staebler-awards/edna-staebler-award-for-creative-non-fiction/index.html).
Griffin Poetry Prize - $65,000 each is given to one Canadian and one international poet who writes in the English language (http://www.griffinpoetryprize.com/about/).
Joe Shuster Awards – several awards are given are given out annually for outstanding achievements in the creation of comic books, graphic novels, webcomics, and comics retailers and publishers by Canadians (https://joeshusterawards.co).
J.W. Dafoe Book Prize - $10,000 is awarded to the best book on “Canada, Canadians and/or Canada’s place in the world” (http://www.dafoefoundation.ca/Book%20Prize_New_HR2.htm).
Kobo Emerging Writer Prizes - $10,000 each is given to three budding Canadian authors of literary fiction, speculative fiction and non-fiction (https://www.kobo.com/us/en/p/emergingwriter).
Kobzar Literary Award - $25,000 is given to recognize outstanding contribution to Canadian literary arts by authors who develop a Ukrainian Canadian theme with literary merit (http://www.kobzarliteraryaward.com/).
Lane Anderson Awards - $10,000 each is presented to Canadian non-fiction science in two categories: adult and young readers (http://laneandersonaward.ca/about/).
Lionel Gelber Prize - $15,000 is given to the world’s best non-fiction book in English on foreign affairs that seeks to deepen public debate on significant international issues (https://munkschool.utoronto.ca/gelber/).
Lorne Pierce Medal – this medal is awarded every two years by the Royal Society of Canada to recognize achievement of special significance and conspicuous merit in imaginative or critical literature written in either English or French (https://rsc-src.ca/en/fellows/medals-awards/rsc-medals-awards#Pierce).
National Business Book Award - $30,000 is given to outstanding talent in Canadian business writing (http://www.nbbaward.com/).
RBC Bronwen Wallace Award for Emerging Writers - Alternating each year between poetry and short fiction, the $10,000 award helps developing artists to help build their professional careers (http://www.writerstrust.com/Awards/RBC-Bronwen-Wallace-Award-for-Emerging-Writers.aspx).
RBC Taylor Prize - $25,000 is awarded to the author of a book of literary non-fiction that best combines a superb command of the English language, an elegance of style, and a subtlety of thought and perception (http://www.thecharlestaylorprize.ca/).
ReLit Award – this prize celebrates the best book from an independent publisher (http://therelitawards.blogspot.ca/).
Shaughnessy Cohen Prize for Political Writing - $25,000 is awarded annually for a book of literary nonfiction that captures a political subject of relevance to Canadian readers and has the potential to shape or influence thinking on Canadian political life (http://www.writerstrust.com/Awards/Shaughnessy-Cohen-Prize-for-Political-Writing.aspx).
Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour - $15,000 is presented for the best book of humour written in English by a Canadian writer (http://www.leacock.ca/medalaward.php).
Sunburst Awards for Excellence in Canadian Literature of the Fantastic - $2,500 in total is awarded to to the best Canadian speculative fiction in three categories: adult, young adult and short story (http://www.sunburstaward.org/).
TD Canadian Children’s Literature Award - $30,000 is given for the best literary work by Canadian authors for children aged one through 12 (https://tdreads.com/home/td-supported-initiatives/td-canadian-childrens-literatures-awards/)
Vine Awards for Canadian Jewish Writing - $10,000 is given to each of five category winners to celebrate excellence in Canadian Jewish writing (http://kofflerarts.org/programs-events/vine-awards-for-canadian-jewish-literature/about/).
These are just the national awards. There are any number of regional awards (e.g. the Thomas Raddall Atlantic Fiction Award and the Atlantic Book Awards), provincial awards (e.g. British Columbia has 8 BC Book Prizes; Ontario has 4 Trillium Book Awards; and Newfoundland and Labrador has its Winterset Award), and even awards given by cities for its writers (e.g. City of Vancouver Book Award, City of Toronto Book Award, Ottawa Book Award).
With all of these awards, one might ask whether Canada actually has too many awards. Mark Medley recently addressed this issue in The Globe and Mail: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/arts/books-and-media/does-canlit-have-too-much-of-a-good-thing-when-it-comes-to-literaryprizes/article36750279/.